Russia to Conduct Open Skies Observation Flights Over Finland

Russia will conduct observation flights over Finland under the framework of the Treaty on Open Skies, the Russian Ministry of Defence announced.

According to the head of the Russian National Center for the Reduction of Nuclear Hazard, Sergei Rozhkov, the flight will be conducted from September 28 to October 2 using the Russian An-30B Open Skies observation aircraft operating from Helsinki-Vantaa Airport. The maximum flight range will be 1,400 km.

The Russian observation aircraft will fly along the route agreed with the monitored party, and the Finnish specialists on board will control the procedure for using observation equipment and compliance with the provisions of the agreement.

“Observation flights within the framework of the treaty are carried out in order to promote greater openness and transparency in the military activities of the participating states, as well as to strengthen security through strengthening confidence-building measures”, said the Russian MoD statement.

Treaty on Open Skies

The Treaty on Open Skies, which entered into force on January 1, 2002, establishes a program of unarmed aerial surveillance flights over the entire territory of its 34 participants.

Aerial reconnaissance flights on the basis of the Open Skies Treaty are conducted in order to verify that the arms control agreements in force are respected by the overflown country. The flights can be carried out over the whole territory of the country with the only exception is for flight safety reasons (i.e, not for reasons of national security).

Open Skies missions consist of Active Observation Missions, known as AOMs, which are the number of flights each party has the right to conduct, and Passive Observation Missions, which are the number of flights each party is obliged to accept.

The treaty is designed to enhance mutual understanding and confidence by giving all participants, regardless of size, a direct role in gathering information about military forces and activities of concern to them.

The 34 state parties to the Open Skies Treaty are: Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark (including Greenland), Estonia, Finland, France, the Republic of Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Kyrgyzstan has signed the treaty but has not yet ratified it.

On May 21, 2020, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would be withdrawing from the treaty due to alleged Russian violations.

The “Open Skies” certified aircraft vary for each state party and include the Boeing OC-135B Open Skies (U.S.), Lockheed C-130 Hercules (Canada and France), CASA CN-235 (Turkey), Antonov An-26 (Hungary), Saab 340/OS-100 (Sweden), Antonov An-30B (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine and Russia), and Tupolev Tu-154M/LK1 (Russia).

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